What should a musician know about human biology?




By the ‘biological musician’, we mean those mental and physical areas of competence –partly inherited and partly acquired – which affect how a musician’s skills will develop and be maintained.

The ‘biological musician’ is not the opposite of the ‘artistic musician’, but the biological musician is the foundation and frame of reference for developing artistry and continuing to play.

Every musician has their own individual biology, and in the following pages, we will focus on the biology of the adult and young adult musician.


Erja Joukamo-Ampuja and Jouko Heiskanen